Plants for Food 3: Pegaga

A carpet of Pegaga leaves
Photo by Shahidul Hasan Roman (CC BY-SA 4.0 License)

Common name: Asiatic pennywort, Indian pennywort

Malay name: Pegaga

Local name: Gotu kola (India)

Scientific name: Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.

Distribution: East, South, and Southeast Asia, as well as Australia

Conservation status: Least concern, Cultivated, Naturalised

Description

Pegaga is originated from the Asian and East African regions such as India, Sri Lanka and Madagascar. It spreads out to many countries such as Malaysia, Pakistan, China, Japan, West Indies, South America and Australia. It is a perennial creeping herb commonly found in moist places. The plant spreads quickly by the roots, producing long stolons up to 250cm in length. These root are at the nodes and form large carpets of growth. The green leaves are of kidney-shape or disc-like, with a deep basal sinus. The margin of leaves are rounded-tooth i.e. crenate or smooth, sometimes with scattered hairs on upper part of leafstalk. Flowers are inconspicuous and formed in short clusters.

Precaution

The plant is toxic in large overdose or as a result of long-term application. Pegaga is POSSIBLY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth for up to 8 weeks. It may cause nausea and stomach pain. Rarely, Pegaga may also cause liver problems if taken by mouth.

Culinary uses

It is widely used in salads and cooked as a vegetable. Besides serving the whole bunch raw with sambal, the stem and leaves can also be made into a refreshing juice. Traditionally it is believed to help ease symptoms of hypertension and migraine. Please click on the following link to get recipe of Pegaga salad with carrot.

Planting

Pegaga survives well on sandy loam to sandy clay. Most species survive well in open areas while others need some shade. Propagation can be done through either seeds or cuttings. If circumstances are favourable, the first harvest can be obtained 2 – 3 months after planting. Fresh leaves harvested as a vegetable are tied together in small bundles and need to be consumed quickly, as they wilt rapidly.

Biodiversity Benefits

Pegaga form dense mats of short plants that are a good low maintenance ground cover. Due to its natural habitat Pegaga is resistant to flooding, therefore it can also be used as a pond or an aquarium plant. This provides shelter for aquatic or amphibious animals.

Related websites:

  1. https://www.yellowpages.my/article/ulam-the-original-malaysian-salad.html
  2.  http://www.globinmed.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=62727:centella-asiatica&catid=8:botanical-information&Itemid=113
  3. http://www.globinmed.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=79424:centella-asiatica-2&catid=199&Itemid=139
  4. http://tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Centella+asiatica
  5. https://www.bibliomed.org/mnsfulltext/140/140-1505496493.pdf?1586245919

Plants for Food 4: Temulawak

Curcuma xanthorrhiza rhizome
Photo credit: Danny Steven S (Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported)

Common name: Javanese turmeric

Malay name: Temulawak

Local name: –

Scientific name: Cucurma zanthorrhiza

Distribution: East, South, and Southeast Asia, as well as Australia

Conservation status: Least concern, Cultivated, Naturalised.

Temulawak is a unique variety of ginger that grows in tropical Asia. This plant is very much like usual ginger, but has the characteristic yellow tinge and taste bitter. As the name suggests, Java ginger originated from Indonesia, more specifically from Java Island. Currently, most of the Temulawak is cultivated in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Philippines.

Flower cluster of Javanese turmeric
Photo credit: Kalpana Kalpana (CC BY-SA 3.0 License)

Temulawak is a herbaceous, perennial plant.  It consists of a cluster of erect pseudostems up to 2 metres tall from an underground rhizome. Each pseudostem is made up of up to 8 leaves with blades that can be 40 – 90cm long and 15 – 21cm wide. The purplish, spike-like cluster of flowers sprout horizontally from the rhizome next to the leaf shoot, with 15 to 35 bracts (hardened, specialised leaves) arranged spirally, each containing a flower. The layers of bract turn purplish as they spiral up. This is different from the flower of ginger, which have greenish, spadix-like (resemble flower cluster of aroids) bracts with pale yellow, tubular flowers.

Precaution

Java ginger seems to be safe for most people when used for a short time, up to 18 weeks. Nonetheless, it may cause stomach irritation and nausea when used in large amounts or for long periods of time. For pregnant and breast-feeding individuals, please stay on the safe side and avoid using it. Besides, don’t use Java ginger if you have liver or gall bladder problems, as it can increase the production of bile and worsen your condition. If you have gallstones, get medical advice before using it.

Culinary Uses

It can be eaten fresh and has a sourish, bitter taste. According to an article written by Juliana Harsianti, Temulawak is mostly used by beating the rhizome of this ginger and putting it into the dish being prepared. The rhizome of Temulawak contains curcuminoid, which is possibly useful to neutralise toxins, relieve joint pain, increase the secretion of bile and lower blood cholesterol.

The common use for this herb is to improve appetite, especially for children. To make a Temulawak potion, mash the rhizome and brew with tamarind and palm sugar, keep it boiling until only half the water remains.

Planting

The plant prefers slightly shady conditions and demands a moist, fertile soil which is rich in humus. Place the dried rhizome into the soil, covered up and don’t forget to water it. Fertilise the soil with compost to get health plant growth.

Biodiversity Benefits

Curcuma species are known to be pollinated by several species of bees and butterflies, as well as attracting ants and beetles that are known to feed on the pollen. There are records of Hoeybees (Apis spp.) and Blue banded bees (Amegilia spp.) visiting these flowers. Dense plantings of gingers can be used to create natural screens or hedges. These provide shelter for small mammals, birds and frogs.

Related website:

  1. http://tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Curcuma+zanthorrhiza
  2. https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-532/javanese-turmeric
  3. https://www.healthbenefitstimes.com/javanese-turmeric/
  4. https://uses.plantnet-project.org/en/Curcuma_xanthorrhiza_(PROSEA)
  5. https://www.koop-phyto.org/en/medicinal-plants/turmeric.php
  6. https://www.99.co/blog/indonesia/cara-menanam-temulawak/
  7. http://ijprb.com/vol%2009%20(1)/7.aswani.pdf

Plants for Food 1: Selom

Selom (Oenanthe javanica)
Photo by KENPAI (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Common name: Java waterdropwort

Malay name: Selom

Other local names: –

Scientific name: Oenanthe javanica

Distribution: East, South, and Southeast Asia, as well as Australia

Conservation status: Least concern, Cultivated, Native

Description

Selom is found in the rainforest in Malaysia. Selom is an erect, perennial plant growing from 10 – 150 cm tall. The plant has creeping stolons by which it spreads vigorously, often forming large clumps. It bears small, white flowers in clusters. Selom often grows wild in swampy places such as the edge of wetland and rice field. However, there has been cultivation of Selom nowadays in response of market demand. It is rich in Vitamin C and minerals.

Culinary use

Selom was once a staple of Malay diets, freshly harvested leaves and stems were often served with a mix of Ulam raja, Pegaga or Tenggek burung as ulam. If you are a food lover, you should not miss the Northern Laksa or Laksa Utara in Peninsular Malaysia. The dish is normally presented together with fresh leaves of Selom. Other than that, the tender stems and leaf stalks of Selom are used fresh as salad, to garnish steamed rice and other dishes, or boiled and chopped as greens.

Planting

Selom is considered a plant that is easy to grow. It thrives in various type of soil. However, it is best to grow the plant in fertile, moist soil with high organic content. To plant Selom in seed bed or nursery, the soil must be plowed before planting.

Instead of planting with seed, planting with cutting is faster to get the yield. Young plant needs sufficient water to grow well. It is good to water the plant two times per day, morning and dusk. The cutting start to develop roots within 2 to 3 weeks. After 4 to 6 months, reduce the times of watering. You can harvest the plant after 3 to 4 months of planting in soil.

The most common found disease of the plant is Sooty mould. Therefore, take precautions on the sanitation and implement good farming practices e.g. keeping a distance among plants and removing unhealthy plants.

Biodiversity benefits

As a small plant that grows in moist places, Selom makes for excellent shelter for small wetland animals such as frogs. It can also be planted near ponds to act as a shelter for fry and small fish. The small white flower clusters are attractive to pollinators like butterflies as well as short- and long- tongued bees.

Related websites:

  1. https://myagri.com.my/2017/12/selom/
  2. https://avrdc.org/water-dropwort-oenanthe-javanica/
  3. http://tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Oenanthe+javanica
  4. https://animhosnan.blogspot.com/2010/12/selom.html
  5. https://www.mstar.com.my/lain-lain/jamu-selera/2014/07/02/kerabu-selom