City Trees

Fig Trees in Town

Fig fruit
Image by Couleur from Pixabay

We might not all recognize them, and we might not recognize all of them but fig trees are among the native flora that have come to settle in cities with us.

Some are intentionally planted in urban areas, while others continue to appear spontaneously, self-sowing, even in the less than ideal habitat that is the city landscape.

Fig plants belong to the genus Ficus and there are over 700 species of fig species spread throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Throughout Peninsular Malaysia alone, there are around a hundred Ficus species native to the peninsula.

fig plant aerial roots

This large group of flowering plants has a diverse growth pattern and, depending on species, can be

  • large trees,
  • shrubs,
  • climbers or
  • epiphytes (plants which live on the surface of other plants for support)

In the wild, these plants are important sources of food and shelter for wildlife. In some natural ecosystems, they are so important that they are described as keystone species.

Keystone species are organisms in a community that have a great influence on other members, regardless of their actual size or number. Although all organisms will have a role to play in a given habitat, the presence of keystone species can be critical to the welfare of the other organisms.

But what role can these plants play in cities?

The Ficus species that survive in cities tend to be those that come from relatively dry and exposed natural habitats like the edges of forests. Or they are the kinds that are capable of sprouting (from seeds dropped by animals) from crevices, to cling to and grow on vertical surfaces like stone walls.

While not all species of native figs can tolerate city conditions, those that do, share the features that make these groups of plants valuable in the wild. They produce fruits that a large variety of urban wildlife, including squirrels, shrews, primates, bats, and fruit-eating birds, find palatable.

The dense crowns and surface roots of fig trees on the other hand, are of value to urban residents where they can offer shade and stabilize and enrich soil cover. Fallen leaf litter decompose and return nutrients to soil and the spreading, surface roots of the trees help prevent soil erosion by improving the soil structure.

weeping fig tree, Ficus benjamina
Weeping Fig (Ficus benjamina)
Photo by Craig Franklin (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Fig trees will also do what trees do so well—provide spaces (holes, branches) for animals to build shelter and nests. In return, animals spread the seeds from fig fruits far and wide.

But there is one animal, an insect, with which figs have a somewhat unique relationship. One which determines how it flowers and fruits, thereby helping make it the important food source that it is.

The very old tale of the fig and the wasp

For each fig species, there is a single wasp species capable of transferring the flowers’ pollen to allow the plant to reproduce. The wasp species in turn relies solely on that fig flower to complete its life cycle (to live in and lay its eggs). One would not survive without the other.

As important as these two groups of plants and insects are to each other, their interdependent relationship affects other life forms as well.

fig wasp species, female
Fig wasp species (female)
Photo by Robertawasp (CC BY-SA 3.0)

The reason that fig plants are considered keystone species is tied to this relationship with wasps. In order for there to be enough chances for the short-lived wasps to find flowers or fruits to live in, individual plants produce flowers and fruits at different times throughout a year.

This means that there is almost always a fruiting fig tree. Even when other plants in some forest communities fail to produce fruit or are not in season, fruit eating mammals and birds would be able to find a supply of food at a fig plant.

Nature in cities

The fig tree is a good example of a tree that is traditionally popular, capable of withstanding urban conditions and has ecological significance (for both humans and wildlife).

There are many factors that dictate what trees can be planted without disrupting roads and spaces for pedestrians, residents and drivers. Nevertheless, the urban habitat consists of such a variety of land types and structures that, by understanding the ecology of wildlife, cities may very well be able to meet both practical and ecological concerns.


Lok, A. F. S. L., W.F. Ang, B.Y.Q. Ng, T.M. Leong, C.K. Yeo & H.T.W. Tan (2013). Native fig species as a keystone resource for the Singapore urban environment. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research.

Shanahan, M., So, S., Compton, S. G., & Corlett, R. (2001). Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review. Biological Reviews76(4), 529-572.

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City Trees

The City Tree

Most days, a city tree is just a tree. It stands there, out of the way, but close enough if you need a shaded parking or walk. Other days, a tree will make one pause and wonder.

Cities all over the world remember to add trees to their streets and build parks from scratch to bring some nature closer to citizens. Parks and city gardens will have collections of beautiful trees which, much like a city’s inhabitants, are brought together from near and far.

Tall, elegant palm trees along the side of roads, or trees with spreading crowns so people can walk beneath; flowering trees that add hints of color, and trees with round crowns to soften the city landscape.

How do we choose which trees move to the city with us?

Tree choices can tell us something of the history and importance of a place, and the nature of the tree.

Cities built in the colonial era have plenty of introduced trees, sometimes because more was known about them than native trees. Newer parts of an urban area might have trees that mature faster so they are ready to adorn the city.

Trees that make it to the city are usually tougher, so to speak, chosen for their ability to withstand disturbances like road vibrations and strong winds, and their tolerance for fumes. There are also practical considerations. Trees that bear heavy, falling fruits or have large roots near the ground surface are not good choices where they pose hazards to people, property or infrastructure.

Urban trees are also chosen for their aesthetic or distinguishing qualities, especially those we find in public parks, open spaces or around prestigious public buildings. They are chosen depending on the context to produce a certain effect: comfort, grandeur, delight.

How trees benefit cities

Just like in their natural habitats, the roles that trees play in urban ecosystems are much more than meets the eye. Like all plants, they help keep excess carbon out of the air within their trunks and roots; their leaves and textured wood filter particulate matter and gases that are released by engines.

Our building materials and activities in cities make urban temperatures higher than they would be otherwise. Trees can cool cities as they release water vapor through their leaves and also by creating shade cover. The right tree selection and arrangement can also help block some of the noise we create as we travel, build and work in cities.

Trees and urban biodiversity

Urban trees also cater to the city wildlife. Tree flowers offer nectar to many kinds of bees, butterflies and moths, and fruits and seeds feed birds, squirrels and shrews. Tree branches and canopies provide spaces for nests and shelters and oftentimes, convenient transit throughout the city.

juvenile monitor lizard on tree trunk with building in background

Trees also make it possible for more plants to flourish in cities as they offer shade for young shoots growing beneath their canopies and support for ferns and climbing plants.

City view

Perhaps cities can offer trees something in return too.

City residents can experience and appreciate trees in a slightly different way than they would in the wild.

A bird’s-eye view of massive trees from atop the LRT, or high rise windows that offer a view of tree tops laden with tiny flowers and hidden nests.

And the luxury of time to watch and follow a sapling’s growth into a grand tree that flowers and fruits, nurtures and shelters, in a suburban backyard.